The five heads of the Caspian countries signed the convention, and the legal status was determined to be "non-Haifei Lake"
The presidents of Kazakhstan, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Iran have signed the Convention on the Legal Status of the Caspian Sea in Aktau, Kazakhstan on the 12th, to divide the Caspian Seabed oil and gas resources and carry out related activities for the five countries on the Caspian Sea. Cooperation has laid the legal foundation.
Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev, Russian President Vladimir Putin, Azerbaijani President Aliyev, Turkmenistan President Berdymukhamedov and Iranian President Rohani met in Aktau on the same day, on the legal status of the Caspian Sea, Caspian Sea Exchange of views on inter-country cooperation and major international and regional issues. After the meeting, the five presidents signed the above-mentioned convention.
The Caspian Sea is located at the junction of Eurasia and covers an area of ??about 370,000 square kilometers. The sea floor is rich in oil and natural gas resources. Oil exploration in the Caspian region began as early as the 1920s. It is relatively conservative in statistics that the proven oil reserves are 48 billion barrels and the natural gas reserves are 8.76 trillion cubic meters.
Is the Caspian Sea a "sea" or a "lake"? Over the years, the countries along the Caspian Sea have been arguing over the legal status of the Caspian Sea.
This issue involves the division and use of oil and gas resources by the coastal countries in the waters of the sea and the seabed. Although the negotiations have never stopped, the situation has never been resolved. It is precisely because of expectations that there will be a breakthrough in this, and all parties pay special attention to this Caspian summit.
According to the convention signed by the heads of state of the five countries on the 12th, the 15 nautical miles of waters stretched out of the coastline of the Caspian Sea countries are the territorial waters of the country. The waters extending beyond the territorial sea for 10 nautical miles are the exclusive fishing areas of the country, other water bodies and the fisheries of these water bodies. The resources will be jointly owned by the five countries along the Caspian Sea.
In other words, the Convention neither defines the Caspian Sea as a sea nor defines it as a lake. The Caspian Sea is a water body with a special status of “non-lakes and seas” and “mixed lakes and oceans”. This means that the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, signed in 1982 against the high seas and the oceans, is not fully applicable to the Caspian Sea.
Regarding the division of oil and gas resources in the Caspian Sea, which is of particular concern to public opinion, the Convention does not clearly stipulate “how to operate specifically”, but only emphasizes that “the Caspian Sea resources will be divided by neighboring countries through negotiations in accordance with the norms of international law”. According to the Convention, as long as the pipeline is approved by the Caspian countries, the relevant Caspian countries have the right to lay oil and gas pipelines on the bottom of the Caspian Sea, but the pipelines must meet environmental requirements.
In addition, the issue of garrison also occupies considerable space in the Convention. The Convention stipulates that non-Caspian countries may not station troops in the Caspian Sea, and the Caspian State shall not provide its own territory to third countries to engage in military operations that endanger other Caspian countries. Ships in non-Caspian countries are not allowed to enter the Caspian Sea.
It is worth noting that the Convention requires that the Caspian countries should consider the rationality of their scale and the security interests of other Caspian countries in the military construction of the Caspian Sea in order to balance the size of the Caspian armies stationed in the Caspian Sea. This undoubtedly supports the importance of the strategic position of the Caspian Sea.
In fact, the sensitivity of the Caspian garrison issue has been revealed in a diplomatic incident on the eve of the summit. In early July, guests attending a Russian TV talk show claimed that the Kazakh government had made a decision to allow the United States to set up a military base at the port along the Harbin Sea. The Foreign Ministry of Kazakhstan immediately issued a statement clarifying that "there is no such thing." Since the disintegration of the Soviet Union, in the discussion on the Caspian issue, the shadow of the United States has often been looming or flashing. Although Russia and Kazakhstan are strategic allies, such "jokes" are also unacceptable.
Regarding the various problems of the Caspian Sea, some have already had clear answers, while others have only outlined the principles. The resolution of the follow-up questions may not be easier than the establishment of the chapter. In any case, the Convention provides the legal basis for the development of the Caspian Sea resources. As the President of Kazakhstan, Nazarbayev, said, this is a "Caspian Constitution."
On the same day, the five presidents also signed six agreements and memoranda aimed at strengthening cooperation between the five countries in the areas of transportation, trade, economy, combating terrorism and organized crime. It is foreseeable that with the determination of the legal status, the future of the Caspian Sea will usher in a round of development climax. Kazakhstan plans to make its own Caspian port Aktau an important hub for the Eurasian Grand Passage. The Awazha national tourist area built by Turkmenistan on the Caspian Sea coast looks very beautiful...